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Glycotherapeutics

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Simon Cool

Dr Cool began his scientific career at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia over 20 years ago.  He received his BSc (hons) and PhD degrees from the University of Queensland, where he subsequently held a faculty position in the School of Biomedical Sciences.  His areas of studies have included age-related changes in the structure of bone and teeth and the extracellular matrix compartment of skeletal tissue that guide stem cell behavior and wound repair.  Dr Cool was invited to join the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Singapore in 2003 as a principal investigator.  He then joined A*STAR’s Institute of Medical Biology in 2008, shortly after its inception, to further his research in regenerative medicine.  Currently, as Senior Principal Investigator of the Glycotherapeutics Group, Dr Cool is focused on developing novel glycosaminoglycan biomolecules that enhance wound repair and control adult human mesenchymal stem cell activity.  Most particularly, he has developed glycotherapeutic compounds and adult stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of bone and cartilage injury, cardiovascular disease, and skin wounds.  Dr Cool has filed over 50 patent applications across 12 families in the field of glycosaminoglycan biochemistry, regenerative medicine and stem cell science.  He has more than 95 publications and continues to foster strong strategic collaborations both nationally and internationally with academic and industry groups.  Dr Cool is an Adjunct Professor (Research) in the Orthopaedic Department at the National University of Singapore.  Dr Cool is currently an elected member of the Council for the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society, Asia Pacific Chapter.  He is an executive editor for the journal Gene, section editor for the Journal of Molecular Histology, and serves on the Editorial Boards of Biomaterials and Stem Cells and Development.

Victor Nurcombe

Victor Nurcombe obtained his PhD in Developmental Nerurobiology from the University of Sydney in 1984. He then took both CJ Martin and Humboldt Fellowships to initiate his postdoctoral training at the Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Munich for a period of 4 years, and then worked in Oxford, Paris and New York, before returning to Australia in 1990 first to the Walter & Eliza Hall Institute at the Royal Melbourne Hospital and hence to the University of Melbourne in 1992 as a Senior Lecturer.


In 1998, he became a Reader and Associate Professor at the University of Queensland as Head of their Developmental Biology Program, before being headhunted to the IMCB in Singapore as a Principal Investigator in Stem Cell Biology in 2003, co-heading the lab with Simon Cool. In August 2008, he became a Principal Investigator within the IMB. He is also an Adjunct Professor to the LKC School of Medicine, Imperial College London-NTU, Singapore, as well as the University of Lille in France.

SRIS PhD Project available:

If we are to realize the therapeutic potential of stem cells, controlling lineage-specific decisions is paramount. The Glycotherapeutics Group is focused on determining how elements of the extracellular matrix within the stem cell niche, and most particularly heparan sulfate sugars, protect, hold and present crucial growth factors to embryonic and adult stem cells, thus controlling intracellular signaling cascades and ultimately cell fate decisions. These sugars are not randomly synthesized, but contain specific domains that couple active molecules together.

Using methods developed in our laboratory we purify growth factor-specific heparan sulfate variants and characterize their activity, in vitro and in numerous animal models. We are investigating a method by which we can reverse engineer their structure and allow them to be biochemically synthesized "on demand". Several of these heparan sulfates offer unique therapeutic advantages for tissue repair. A major focus of our translational program is the question of how bone marrow stromal stem cells respond when challenged by various heparan sulfate-growth factor combinations, both in vitro and in various wound-healing models. Most recently, in vivo bone fracture models have been successfully treated by heparan sulfate therapy, resulting in increased bone regeneration.

Following on from these exciting results, A*STAR's Exploit Technologies is helping us to patent and develop our growing portfolio for commercialization. Furthermore, with the help of commercial partners we are seeking to further strengthen our ability to biochemically synthesize these novel molecules, a first step in exploiting this technology. Most recently, we have began pre-clinical animal trials using a combination of HS and implantable hydroxyapatite to improve the healing of critical-sized bone defects.

Group Members

Research Scientist
Ling Ling
Senior Research Fellow
Gajadhar Bhakta
Research Fellows Anindita Chatterjea
  Poon Kwee Lan, Selina
  Drew Titmarsh
  Alexander Smith
Postgraduate Students Siti Abdul Karim
  Siti Anwar (AGS)
  Bethanie Ayerst (ARAP)
  Lim Xuehui, Zophia
Research Officers
Chua Ren Jie, Eunice
  Mah Ying Yi, Sophia
  Nur Atiqah Mohsen
  Tan Tuan Chun


Titmarsh DM, Tan CL, Glass NR, Nurcombe V, Cooper-White JJ, Cool SM. Microfluidic Screening Reveals Heparan Sulfate Enhances Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth by Modulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Transport. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Feb 16. doi: 10.1002/sctm.16-0343 Link
Trott, J, Ee KT, Ong S, Titmarsh DM, Denil SLIJ, Giam M, Wong CK, Wang J, Shboul M, Eio M, Cooper-White J, Cool SM, Rancati G, Stanton LW, Reversade R, Dunn NR. Long-Term Culture of Self-Renewing Pancreatic Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports 2017 8:1675-1688. DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.05.019 Link
Smith RAA, Chua RJE, Carnachan SM, Tan CLL, Sims IM, Hinkley SFR, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Retention of the Structure and Function of Heparan Sulfate Biomaterials After Gamma Irradiation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017 Nov 30. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2017.0263. Link
Yap L, Murali S, Bhakta G, Titmarsh DM, Chen AK, Chiin Sim L, Bardor M, Lim YM, Goh JCH, Oh SKW, Choo ABH, van Wijnen AJ, Robinson DE, Whittle JD, Birch WR, Short RD, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Immobilization of vitronectin-binding heparan sulfates onto surfaces to support human pluripotent stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017 Sep 20. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33999. Link
Wijesinghe SJ, Ling L, Murali S, Qing YH, Hinkley SF, Carnachan SM, Bell TJ, Swaminathan K, Hui JH, van Wijnen AJ, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Affinity Selection of FGF2-Binding Heparan Sulfates for Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Cell Physiol. 2017 Mar;232(3):566-575. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25454 Link
Ayerst BI, Smith RA, Nurcombe V, Day AJ, Merry CL, Cool SM. Growth Differentiation Factor 5-Mediated Enhancement of Chondrocyte Phenotype Is Inhibited by Heparin: Implications for the Use of Heparin in the Clinic and in Tissue Engineering Applications. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017 Apr;23(7-8):275-292. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2016.0364 Link
Chan SJ, Love C, Spector M, Cool SM, Nurcombe V, Lo EH. Endogenous regeneration: Engineering growth factors for stroke. Neurochem Int. 2017 Jul;107:57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2017.03.024 Link
Samsonraj RM, Dudakovic A, Zan P, Pichurin O, Cool SM, van Wijnen AJ. A Versatile Protocol for Studying Calvarial Bone Defect Healing in a Mouse Model. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2017 Nov;23(11):686-693. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2017.0205 Link
Samsonraj RM, Rai B, Sathiyanathan P, Puan KJ, Rötzschke O, Hui JH, Raghunath M, Stanton LW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Establishing criteria for human mesenchymal stem cell potency. Stem Cells. 2015 Mar 5. doi: 10.1002/stem.1982. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25752682. Link
Hu T, Abbah SA, Wang M, Toh SY, Moon Lam RW, Naidu M, Bhakta G, Cool S, Bhakoo K, Li J, Cho-Hong Goh J, Wong HK. Novel Protamine based Polyelectrolyte carrier enhance low dose rhBMP-2 in Posterolateral Spinal Fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25705961. Link
Dudakovic A, Camilleri E, Riester SM, Lewallen EA, Kvasha S, Chen X, Radel DJ, Anderson JM, Nair AA, Evans JM, Krych AJ, Smith J, Deyle DR, Stein JL, Stein GS, Im HJ, Cool SM, Westendorf JJ, Kakar S, Dietz AB, van Wijnen AJ. High-resolution molecular validation of self-renewal and spontaneous differentiation in clinical-grade adipose-tissue derived human mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Biochem. 2014 Oct;115(10):1816-28. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24852. PubMed PMID: 24905804; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4225070. Link
Wang C, Poon S, Murali S, Koo CY, Bell TJ, Hinkley SF, Yeong H, Bhakoo K, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Engineering a vascular endothelial growth factor 165-binding heparan sulfate for vascular therapy. Biomaterials. 2014 Aug;35(25):6776-86. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.04.084. Epub 2014 May 20. PubMed PMID: 24854095. Link
Ayerst BI, Day AJ, Nurcombe V, Cool SM, Merry CL. New strategies for cartilage regeneration exploiting selected glycosaminoglycans to enhance cell fate determination. Biochem Soc Trans. 2014 Jun;42(3):703-9. doi: 10.1042/BST20140031. PubMed PMID: 24849240. Link
Okolicsanyi RK, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM, Stein GS, Griffiths LR, Haupt LM. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and human breast cancer epithelial cell tumorigenicity. J Cell Biochem. 2014 May;115(5):967-76. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24746. PubMed PMID: 24357546; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4225069. Link
Dombrowski C, Helledie T, Ling L, Grünert M, Canning CA, Jones CM, Hui JH, Nurcombe V, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM. FGFR1 signaling stimulates proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1). Stem Cells. 2013 Dec;31(12):2724-36. doi: 10.1002/stem.1514. PubMed PMID: 23939995. Link
Bhakta G, Lim ZX, Rai B, Lin T, Hui JH, Prestwich GD, van Wijnen AJ, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. The influence of collagen and hyaluronan matrices on the delivery and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and ectopic bone formation. Acta Biomater. 2013 Nov;9(11):9098-106. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.07.008. Epub 2013 Jul 19. PubMed PMID: 23871940. Link
van der Deen M, Taipaleenmäki H, Zhang Y, Teplyuk NM, Gupta A, Cinghu S, Shogren K, Maran A, Yaszemski MJ, Ling L, Cool SM, Leong DT, Dierkes C, Zustin J, Salto-Tellez M, Ito Y, Bae SC, Zielenska M, Squire JA, Lian JB, Stein JL, Zambetti GP, Jones SN, Galindo M, Hesse E, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ. MicroRNA-34c inversely couples the biological functions of the runt-related transcription factor RUNX2 and the tumor suppressor p53 in osteosarcoma. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 19;288(29):21307-19. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.445890. Epub 2013 May 29. PubMed PMID: 23720736; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3774399. Link
Murali S, Rai B, Dombrowski C, Lee JL, Lim ZX, Bramono DS, Ling L, Bell T, Hinkley S, Nathan SS, Hui JH, Wong HK, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Affinity-selected heparan sulfate for bone repair. Biomaterials. 2013 Jul;34(22):5594-605. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.04.017. Epub 2013 Apr 28. PubMed PMID: 23632323. Link
Samsonraj RM, Raghunath M, Hui JH, Ling L, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Telomere length analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells by quantitative PCR. Gene. 2013 May 1;519(2):348-55. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.01.039. Epub 2013 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 23380569. Link
Kisiel M, Klar AS, Ventura M, Buijs J, Mafina MK, Cool SM, Hilborn J. Complexation and sequestration of BMP-2 from an ECM mimetic hyaluronan gel for improved bone formation. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 22;8(10):e78551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078551. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24167632; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3805527. Link
Bhakta G, Rai B, Lim ZX, Hui JH, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ, Nurcombe V, Prestwich GD, Cool SM. Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels functionalized with heparin that support controlled release of bioactive BMP-2. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep;33(26):6113-22. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.05.030. Epub 2012 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 22687758; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3628623. Link
Helledie T, Dombrowski C, Rai B, Lim ZX, Hin IL, Rider DA, Stein GS, Hong W, van Wijnen AJ, Hui JH, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Heparan sulfate enhances the self-renewal and therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from human adult bone marrow. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Jul 20;21(11):1897-910. doi: 10.1089/scd.2011.0367. Epub 2012 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 22066689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3402859. Link
Heng BC, Li J, Chen AK, Reuveny S, Cool SM, Birch WR, Oh SK. Translating human embryonic stem cells from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional cultures in a defined medium on laminin- and vitronectin-coated surfaces. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Jul 1;21(10):1701-15. doi: 10.1089/scd.2011.0509. Epub 2011 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 22034857. Link
Bramono DS, Murali S, Rai B, Ling L, Poh WT, Lim ZX, Stein GS, Nurcombe V, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM. Bone marrow-derived heparan sulfate potentiates the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone. 2012 Apr;50(4):954-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.12.013. Epub 2011 Dec 28. PubMed PMID: 22227436; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3589980. Link
Ekaputra AK, Prestwich GD, Cool SM, Hutmacher DW. The three-dimensional vascularization of growth factor-releasing hybrid scaffold of poly (epsilon-caprolactone)/collagen fibers and hyaluronic acid hydrogel. Biomaterials. 2011 Nov;32(32):8108-17. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.07.022. Epub 2011 Jul 31. PubMed PMID: 21807407. Link
Bhakta G, Sharma RK, Gupta N, Cool S, Nurcombe V, Maitra A. Multifunctional silica nanoparticles with potentials of imaging and gene delivery. Nanomedicine. 2011 Aug;7(4):472-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2010.12.008. Epub 2011 Jan 5. PubMed PMID: 21215332. Link
Bramono DS, Rider DA, Murali S, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. The effect of human bone marrow stroma-derived heparan sulfate on the ex vivo expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. Pharm Res. 2011 Jun;28(6):1385-94. doi: 10.1007/s11095-010-0352-y. Epub 2010 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 21184148. Link
Murali S, Leong DF, Lee JJ, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. Comparative assessment of the effects of gender-specific heparan sulfates on mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 May 20;286(20):17755-65. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.148874. Epub 2011 Mar 25. PubMed PMID: 21454472; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3093851. Link
Yap LY, Li J, Phang IY, Ong LT, Ow JZ, Goh JC, Nurcombe V, Hobley J, Choo AB, Oh SK, Cool SM, Birch WR. Defining a threshold surface density of vitronectin for the stable expansion of human embryonic stem cells. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2011 Feb;17(2):193-207. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2010.0328. Epub 2010 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 20726687. Link
Rai B, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Heparan sulfate-based treatments for regenerative medicine. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2011;21(1):1-12. Review. PubMed PMID: 21967329. Link
Yap L, Li J, Phang IY, Ong LT, Ow JZ, Goh JC, Nurcombe V, Hobley J, Choo A, Oh S, Cool S, Birch W. (2010) Defining a Threshold Surface Density of Vitronectin for the Stable Expansion of Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2010 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Rai B, Lin JL, Lim ZX, Guldberg RE, Hutmacher DW, Cool SM. (2010) Differences between in vitro viability and differentiation and in vivo bone-forming efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on PCL-TCP scaffolds. Biomaterials. 31(31):7960-7970. Epub 2010 Aug 4.
Ling L, Dombrowski C, Foong KM, Haupt LM, Stein GS, Nurcombe V, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM. (2010) Synergism between Wnt3a and heparin enhances osteogenesis via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/RUNX2 pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(34):26233-44.
Ding VM, Ling L, Natarajan S, Yap MG, Cool SM, Choo AB. (2010) FGF-2 modulates Wnt signaling in differentiated hESC and iPS cells through activated PI3-K/GSK3beta signaling. Journal of Cellullar Physiology. 2010 May 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Ling L, van Wijnen A, Cool SM. (2010) Glycosaminoglycans modulate RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 109(6):1222-31.
Ho STB, Cool SM, Hui JHP and Hutmacher DW. (2010) The influence of fibrin based hydrogels on the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials 31:38鈥�47.
Ling L, Dombrowski C, Foong KM, Haupt LM, Stein GS, Nurcombe V, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM (2010). Synergism between Wnt3a and heparin enhances osteogenesis via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/RUNX2 pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(34):26233-44.
Pereira BP, Zhou Y, Gupta A, Leong DT, Aung KZ, Ling L, Pho RW, Galindo M, Salto-Tellez M, Stein GS, Cool SM, van Wijnen AJ, Nathan SS. (2009) Runx2, p53, and pRB status as diagnostic parameters for deregulation of osteoblast growth and differentiation in a new pre-chemotherapeutic osteosarcoma cell line (OS1). J Cell Physiol. 221(3):778-88.
Sadasivam Murali, Kerry Manton, Tjong Vinalia, Su Xiao Di, Larisa M Haupt, Simon M Cool and Victor Nurcombe. (2009) Purification and Characterization of Heparan Sulfate from Human Primary Osteoblasts Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 108:1132鈥�1142.
Ekaputra A, Zhou Y, Cool SM, Hutmacher DW. (2009) Composite Electrospun Scaffolds for Engineering Tubular Bone Grafts. Tissue Engineering Part A. December 2009: 3779-3788.
Haupt LM, Murali S, Mun FK, Teplyuk N, Mei LF, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2009) The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican-3 mediates commitment of MC3T3-E1 cells toward osteogenesis. J Cell Physiol. Sep;220(3):780-91.
Chum ZZ, Woodruff MA, Cool SM, Hutmacher DW. (2009) Porcine bone marrow stromal cell differentiation on heparin-adsorbed poly(e-caprolactone)-tricalcium phosphate-collagen scaffolds. Acta Biomater. 2009 Nov;5(9):3305-15.
Tonks ID, Mould A, Nurcombe V, Cool SM, Walker GJ, Hacker E, Keith P, Schroder WA, Cotterill A, Hayward NK, Kay GF. (2009) Dual loss of Rb1 and Trp53 in melanocytes perturbs melanocyte homeostasis and genetic stability in vitro but does not cause melanoma or pigmentation defects in vivo. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Jun;22(3):328-30.
Kumarasuriyar A, Lee I, Nurcombe V., and Cool SM. (2009) De-sulfation of MG-63 cell glycosaminoglycans delays in vitro osteogenesis, up-regulates cholesterol synthesis and disrupts cell cycle and the actin cytoskeleton J Cell Physiol. Jun;219(3):572-83.
Teplyuk NM, Haupt LM, Ling L, Dombrowski C, Lian JB, Stein JL, Stein GS, Cool SM, van Wijnen AJ. (2009) The Osteogenic Transcription Factor Runx2 Regulates Components of the Fibroblast Growth Factor/Proteoglycan Signaling Axis in Osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem. May 1;107(1):144-54.
Ling L, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2009) Wnt signaling controls the fate of mesenchymal stem cells. Gene. 2009 Mar 15;433(1-2):1-7.
Sawyer AA, Song SJ, Susanto E, Chuan P, Lam CXF, Woodruff MA, Hutmacher DW and Cool SM. (2009) The stimulation of healing within a rat calvarial defect by mPCL-TCP/collagen scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2. Biomaterials 30:2479-2488.
Nathan SS, Pereira BP, Ye-fang Zhou, Gupta A, Dombrowski, C, Soong, R, Pho WRH, and Stein GS. (2009) Elevated expression of Runx2 as a key parameter in the etiology of osteosarcoma. Mol Biol Reports. 36(1):153-158.
Kumarasuriyar A, Murali S, Nurcombe V., and Cool SM. (2009) Glycosaminoglycan composition changes with MG-63 osteosarcoma osteogenesis in vitro and induces human mesenchymal stem cell aggregation. J Cell Physiol. 218(3):501-511.
Kumarasuriyar A., Gr酶ndahl L., Nurcombe V., and Cool SM. (2009) Osteoblasts up-regulate the expression of extracellular proteases following attachment to Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate). Gene. 428(1-2):53-58.
Dombrowski C, Song SJ, Chuan P, Lim XH, Susanto E, Sawyer AA, Woodruff MA, Hutmacher DW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2009) Heparan sulfate mediates the proliferation and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. May;18(4):661-70.
Ling L, Nurcombe V, Cool SM (2009). Wnt signaling controls the fate of mesenchymal stem cells. (accepted in press Gene doi:10.1016/j.gene.2008.12.008)
Kumarasuriyar A, Murali S, Nurcombe V., and Cool SM. (2009) Glycosaminoglycan composition changes with MG-63 osteosarcoma osteogenesis in vitro and induces human mesenchymal stem cell aggregation. J Cell Physiol. 218(3):501-511.
Kumarasuriyar A., Grøndahl L., Nurcombe V., and Cool SM. (2009) A Osteoblasts upregulate the expression of extracellular proteases following attachment to Poly(ß-hydroxybutyrate-co-ß-hydroxyvalerate. Gene. 428(1-2):53-58
Ekaputra AK, Prestwich GD, Cool SM, Hutmacher DW. (2008) Combining electrospun scaffolds with electrosprayed hydrogels leads to three-dimensional cellularization of hybrid constructs. Biomacromolecules. Aug;9(8):2097-103.
Rider D, Hutmacher, DW, Nurcombe V, and Cool SM. (2008) Autocrine FGF2 Increases the Multipotentiality of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Stem Cells. Jun;26(6):1598-608.
Helledie T, Nurcombe, V and Cool, SM. (2008) A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. Aug;17(4):837-48.
Grunert M, Nurcombe, V and Cool SM. (2008). Stem cell fate decisions: the role of heparan sulfate in the control of autocrine and paracrine signals. Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy 3(1):1-8.
Dombrowski C, Song SJ, Chuan P, Lim XH, Susanto E, Sawyer AA, Woodruff MA, Hutmacher DW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2008) Heparan sulfate mediates the proliferation and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. Aug 8. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 18690792
Rider D, Hutmacher, DW, Nurcombe V, and Cool SM (2008) Autocrine FGF2 Increases the Multipotentiality of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Stem Cells. Jun;26(6):1598-608.
Helledie T, Nurcombe, V and Cool, SM (2008) A simple and reliable electroporation method for human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. Aug;17(4):837-48.
Grunert M, Nurcombe, V and Cool SM (2008). Stem cell fate decisions – the role of heparan sulfate in the control of autocrine and paracrine signals. Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy 3(1):1-8.
Cool SM. (2007) Control of cell fate decisions. J Mol Histol 38(5):377-9.
Keen I, Raggatt LJ, Cool SM, Nurcombe V, Fredericks P, Trau M, Grondahl L. (2007) Investigations into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) surface properties causing delayed osteoblast growth. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 18(9):1101-23.
Kumarasuriyar A, Dombrowski C, Rider DA, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) A novel use of TAT-EGFP to validate techniques to alter osteosarcoma cell surface glycosaminoglycan expression. J Mol Histol 38(5):435-47.
Woodruff MA, Rath SN, Susanto E, Haupt LM, Hutmacher DW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Sustained release and osteogenic potential of heparan sulfate-doped fibrin glue scaffolds within a rat cranial model. J Mol Histol 38(5):425-33.
Hutmacher DW, Cool S. (2007) Concepts of scaffold-based tissue engineering--the rationale to use solid free-form fabrication techniques. J Cell Mol Med 11(4):654-69.
Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Heparan sulfate control of proliferation and differentiation in the stem cell niche. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 17(2):159-71.
Manton KJ, Leong DF, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. (2007) Disruption of heparan and chondroitin sulfate signaling enhances mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteogenic differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways. Stem Cells 25(11):2845-54.
Rider DA, Nalathamby T, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Selection using the alpha-1 integrin (CD49a) enhances the multipotentiality of the mesenchymal stem cell population from heterogeneous bone marrow stromal cells. J Mol Histol 38(5):449-58.
Luong-Van E, Grondahl L, Song S, Nurcombe V, Cool S. (2007) The in vivo assessment of a novel scaffold containing heparan sulfate for tissue engineering with human mesenchymal stem cells. J Mol Histol 38(5):459-68.
Grunert M, Dombrowski C, Sadasivam M, Manton K, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. (2007) Isolation of a native osteoblast matrix with a specific affinity for BMP2. J Mol Histol 38(5):393-404.
Nurcombe V, Goh FJ, Haupt LM, Murali S, Cool SM. (2007) Temporal and functional changes in glycosaminoglycan expression during osteogenesis. J Mol Histol 38(5):469-81.
Manton KJ, Haupt LM, Vengadasalam K, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Glycosaminoglycan and growth factor mediated murine calvarial cell proliferation. J Mol Histol 38(5):415-24.
Woei Ng K, Speicher T, Dombrowski C, Helledie T, Haupt LM, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Osteogenic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells is mediated by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Stem Cells Dev 16(2):305-18.
Cool SM, Kenny B, Wu A, Nurcombe V, Trau M, Cassady AI, Grondahl L. (2007) Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) composite biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration: in vitro performance assessed by osteoblast proliferation, osteoclast adhesion and resorption, and macrophage proinflammatory response. J Biomed Mater Res A 82(3):599-610.
Luong-Van E, Grondahl L, Nurcombe V, Cool S. (2007) In vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of microencapsulated heparan sulfate. Biomaterials 28(12):2127-36.
Jackson RA, Murali S, van Wijnen AJ, Stein GS, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2007) Heparan sulfate regulates the anabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells by induction of Runx2. J Cell Physiol 210(1):38-50.
Song SJ, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. (2007) Regulated expression of syndecan-4 in rat calvaria osteoblasts induced by fibroblast growth factor-2. J Cell Biochem 100(2):402-11.
R. A. Jackson, S. Murali, A. J. van Wijnen, G. S. Stein, V. Nurcombe, and S. M. Cool, 'Heparan Sulfate Regulates the Anabolic Activity of Mc3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells by Induction of Runx2', J Cell Physiol, 210 (2007), 38-50.
K. J. Manton, D. F. Leong, S. M. Cool, and V. Nurcombe, 'Disruption of Heparan and Chondroitin Sulfate Signaling Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Osteogenic Differentiation Via Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Pathways', Stem Cells, 25 (2007), 2845-54.
D. A. Rider, T. Nalathamby, V. Nurcombe, and S. M. Cool, 'Selection Using the Alpha-1 Integrin (Cd49a) Enhances the Multipotentiality of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Population from Heterogeneous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells', J Mol Histol, 38 (2007), 449-58.
S. J. Song, S. M. Cool, and V. Nurcombe, 'Regulated Expression of Syndecan-4 in Rat Calvaria Osteoblasts Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor-2', J Cell Biochem, 100 (2007), 402-11.
K. Woei Ng, T. Speicher, C. Dombrowski, T. Helledie, L. M. Haupt, V. Nurcombe, and S. M. Cool, 'Osteogenic Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Is Mediated by Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors', Stem Cells Dev, 16 (2007), 305-18.
M. A. Woodruff, S. N. Rath, E. Susanto, L. M. Haupt, D. W. Hutmacher, V. Nurcombe, and S. M. Cool, 'Sustained Release and Osteogenic Potential of Heparan Sulfate-Doped Fibrin Glue Scaffolds within a Rat Cranial Model', J Mol Histol, 38 (2007), 425-33.
Jackson RA, Kumarasuriyar A, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2006) Long-term loading inhibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increases FGFR3 expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. J Cell Physiol 209(3):894-904.
Ling L, Murali S, Dombrowski C, Haupt LM, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2006) Sulfated glycosaminoglycans mediate the effects of FGF2 on the osteogenic potential of rat calvarial osteoprogenitor cells. J Cell Physiol 209(3):811-25.
Song SJ, Hutmacher D, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2006) Temporal expression of proteoglycans in the rat limb during bone healing. Gene 379:92-100.
Manton KJ, Sadasivam M, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. (2006) Bone-specific heparan sulfates induce osteoblast growth arrest and downregulation of retinoblastoma protein. J Cell Physiol 209(1):219-29.
Jackson RA, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2006) Coordinated fibroblast growth factor and heparan sulfate regulation of osteogenesis. Gene 379:79-91.
Cool SM, Nurcombe V. (2006) Heparan sulfate regulation of progenitor cell fate. J Cell Biochem 99(4):1040-51.
Jackson RA, McDonald MM, Nurcombe V, Little DG, Cool SM. (2006) The use of heparan sulfate to augment fracture repair in a rat fracture model. J Orthop Res 24(4):636-44.
Luong-Van E, Grondahl L, Chua KN, Leong KW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. (2006) Controlled release of heparin from poly(epsilon-caprolactone) electrospun fibers. Biomaterials 27(9):2042-50.
R. A. Jackson, M. M. McDonald, V. Nurcombe, D. G. Little, and S. M. Cool, 'The Use of Heparan Sulfate to Augment Fracture Repair in a Rat Fracture Model', J Orthop Res, 24 (2006), 636-44.
L. Ling, S. Murali, C. Dombrowski, L. M. Haupt, G. S. Stein, A. J. van Wijnen, V. Nurcombe, and S. M. Cool, 'Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Mediate the Effects of Fgf2 on the Osteogenic Potential of Rat Calvarial Osteoprogenitor Cells', J Cell Physiol, 209 (2006), 811-25.
S. M. Cool, and V. Nurcombe, 'Substrate Induction of Osteogenesis from Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Precursors', Stem Cells Dev, 14 (2005), 632-42.
Cool S, Jackson R, Pincus P, Dickinson I, Nurcombe V. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) expression in newborn murine calvaria and primary osteoblast cultures. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46(4):519-23. PubMed PMID: 12141439. Link
Chipperfield H, Bedi KS, Cool SM, Nurcombe V. Heparan sulfates isolated from adult neural progenitor cells can direct phenotypic maturation. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46(4):661-70. PubMed PMID: 12141455. Link
Descamps S, Toillon RA, Adriaenssens E, Pawlowski V, Cool SM, Nurcombe V, Le Bourhis X, Boilly B, Peyrat JP, Hondermarck H. Nerve growth factor stimulates proliferation and survival of human breast cancer cells through two distinct signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 25;276(21):17864-70. Epub 2001 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 11359788. Link
Nurcombe V, Smart CE, Chipperfield H, Cool SM, Boilly B, Hondermarck H. The proliferative and migratory activities of breast cancer cells can be differentially regulated by heparan sulfates. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 29;275(39):30009-18. PubMed PMID: 10862617. Link
Y. G. Brickman, V. Nurcombe, M. D. Ford, J. T. Gallagher, P. F. Bartlett, and J. E. Turnbull, 'Structural Comparison of Fibroblast Growth Factor-Specific Heparan Sulfates Derived from a Growing or Differentiating Neuroepithelial Cell Line', Glycobiology, 8 (1998), 463-71.
S. J. Joseph, M. D. Ford, C. Barth, S. Portbury, P. F. Bartlett, V. Nurcombe, and U. Greferath, 'A Proteoglycan That Activates Fibroblast Growth Factors During Early Neuronal Development Is a Perlecan Variant', Development, 122 (1996), 3443-52.
Cool SM, Hendrikz JK, Wood WB. Microscopic age changes in the human occipital bone. J Forensic Sci. 1995 Sep;40(5):789-96. PubMed PMID: 7595323. Link
V. Nurcombe, M. D. Ford, J. A. Wildschut, and P. F. Bartlett, 'Developmental Regulation of Neural Response to Fgf-1 and Fgf-2 by Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan', Science, 260 (1993), 103-6.
D. H. Small, V. Nurcombe, R. Moir, S. Michaelson, D. Monard, K. Beyreuther, and C. L. Masters, 'Association and Release of the Amyloid Protein Precursor of Alzheimer's Disease from Chick Brain Extracellular Matrix', J Neurosci, 12 (1992), 4143-50.