Anna-Marie FAIRHURST

Autoimmunity Laboratory

Profile

Anna-Marie-FAIRHURST
Lab Location: #6-16  Email: annamarie@imcb.a-star.edu.sg   Tel: 65869860

Anna-Marie Fairhurst received her PhD in Immunology/Pharmacology at the William Harvey Research Institute at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, University of London in 2002. During her PhD she examined the roles of neutrophil-FcγRIIIb and tristetraprolin (TTP) expression in rheumatoid arthritis under the direction of Nicolas Goulding and Paul Wallace (Dartmouth, NH). From London she moved to the NIH, in Bethesda, Maryland, USA to undertake a postdoc with Peter Lipsky. Projects were focused on the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of autoimmunity. Her main directions were to examine innate regulation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the effects of IL-21 on B cell transcription factors.  In 2004, she moved to Dallas, TX, to continue studying SLE with Ward Wakeland. Her research focused on the genetic and immunological mechanisms which drive SLE pathogenesis using multiple murine models, specifically examining the role of IFNα and the TLRs. Anna-Marie joined A*STAR in March 2010 at the Singapore Immunology Network and transferred to IMCB in 2019.  The overall goal of her lab is to understand the mechanisms that maintain an effective balance in the immune system for efficient protection from infections, cancer and autoimmunity. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the archetypal autoimmune disease, whereby the host’s immune system develops reactivity to self, resulting in systemic inflammation and often, kidney pathology. By studying the immunological mechanisms driving this disease, the crucial mechanisms of immune tolerance and inflammation that are targets for therapy across multiple diseases can be understood. Her lab is translational, working with multiple animal models and clinical human samples. She has also retained a passion for advanced flow cytometry techniques and advancing women in STEM. In her spare time she enjoys running, swimming and chasing after her 3 young children.  

Adjunct Positions
Adjunct Assistant Professor, School of Biological Sciences, NTU, Singapore; 
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, NUS, Singapore

 

Research

Research Focus

The global increase in the frequency of autoimmune diseases together with the emerging autoimmune-related side effects of cancer immunotherapy have led to a need for further understandings in breaches of tolerance and immune activation. Our research is focused on the mechanisms that maintain the balance of the immune system. Innate immune mechanisms are fundamental for an effective host response to potentially pathogenic organisms. However, dysregulation can result in susceptibility to infections or pathogenic inflammation and autoimmunity. Much of our work to date has focused on the roles of the endosomal innate toll-like receptors (TLR) in the regulation of the immune response in the archetypal autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This is a systemic immunological disease whereby the host’s immune system develops reactivity to self, resulting in systemic inflammation and often, kidney disease. The mainstay of therapy since the 1950s has been non-specific immunosuppressants. While these are effective at treating symptoms and tissue manifestations of autoimmune diseases, their non-selective nature also causes broad toxicity profiles. 

We are a translational lab, working with multiple animal models and clinical human samples to understand mechanisms leading to systemic autoimmunity so we can improve therapeutic interventions.

• Projects

Credit: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i55-i66. doi:
10.1093/rheumatology/kew427. Pathways leading to an immunological disease: systemic lupus erythematosus. Zharkova O et al. (Open Access)

The Fairhurst lab is working to ascertain how the immune system maintains an effective balance between protection from infections, cancer and autoimmunity. By studying the archetypical systemic immunological disease SLE, we can understand crucial mechanisms of immune tolerance and inflammation that are targets for therapy across multiple diseases. We have multiple projects in the scheme presented in the image above (taken from Rheumatology, 2017). Listed here are a few of the main projects led by our research team. 

1. Understanding how TLR9 regulates B cell immunity and conventional dendritic cell (DC) activation
TLR9 is an innate intracellular receptor that recognises dsDNA. Historically, the presence autoantibodies to dsDNA, made this receptor a prime candidate for therapeutic intervention in SLE. Stimulation of B cells with dsDNA immune complexes results in B cell and DC activation and in vivo administration of CpG resulted in an increase in autoimmune phenotypes in lupus models. However, surprisingly, genetic ablation of TLR9 did not eliminate autoimmunity, but resulted in an augmentation in lupus-like phenotypes. The mechanisms by which TLR9 maintains tolerance are as yet unknown. We have generated B6.Sle1TLR9-/- mice which develop similar phenotypes to mouse models of other strains (MRL / Nba2). We are assessing the impact of TLR9 on B cell function and in cDCs. 

2. Determining the mechanism by which TLR7 modulates immune activation. 
The innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR) family has been shown to play a fundamental role in promoting pathogenesis. Multiple investigations have shown that that the ssRNA receptor, TLR7 and its downstream MyD88 signaling pathway are critical for the initiation of autoimmunity and development of self-reactivity (reviewed in: Fairhurst 2006; PMID17145301). In TLR7-sufficient autoimmune prone systems an additional increase in TLR7 results in severe autoimmune phenotypes. The Fairhurst lab has shown that a 2-fold increase in TLR7 alone on the Sle1 background is sufficient to drive disease using a novel low copy conditional TLR7 BAC transgenic system (Sle1Tg7loxp, aka Sle1Tg7) (Hwang 2012; PMID23150717). We have shown that TLR7 upregulation specifically in cDCs is required for the progression to severe disease (Celhar 2015; PMID26512111). We are currently assessing downstream signalling molecules in the TLR7-signaling pathway, and determining the impact of disease on TLR7 protein expression across multiple leukocyte lineages and tissues. 

3. Assessing the impact of the microbiome on systemic immunological activation
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development and regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Several studies have suggested that the development of a number of autoimmune diseases, including RA, T1D and EAE, are influenced by gut microbiota. However, investigations into the role of the microbiota in the development of SLE are unknown. TLR9 is expressed on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, may play an important role in the development of disease. We are working on understanding whether the microbiome influences systemic inflammation and autoimmunity in TLR9-deficient non autoimmune and autoimmune Sle1 mice.

4. Examining the loss of immune tolerance through SLAMF polymorphisms. 
Multiple murine studies have demonstrated that a small region on chromosome 1 is fundamental for the development of disease (termed Sle1, MRLc1, Nba2, Sbw1, Lbw7, Cgnz1, Bxs1 and Bxs2. When present on a non-autoimmune prone B6 background, the NZW-derived locus (B6.Sle1) confers a loss of tolerance to nuclear material resulting in a high penetrance of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), and an increase in B and T cell activation. It is now evident that polymorphisms of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF) are responsible for these mild autoimmune traits. Further, recent studies have supported a role for both Ly108 and CD84 in this model system. We are assessing the impact of Sle1-derived and B6-derived SLAMF members in the loss of tolerance and modulation of the immune response. 

5. Modulation of T cell functions for immune therapies
Our observations indicate fundamental defects in the CD4+ repertoire in SLE, including regulatory cells. We propose that these are opposite to the events occurring in cancer. We have generated a series of murine models with the Sle1/Sle1TLR9 background to dissect the mechanisms of immune tolerance to assess novel targets for therapy.   

Publications

Recent Publications (* indicates joint / co-corresponding author)

Induction of Human T-Cell and Cytokine Responses Following Immunization with a Novel Influenza Vaccine.Skibinski DAG, Jones LA, Zhu LW, Au B, Lee B, Naim ANM, Lee A, Kaliaperumal N, Low JGH, Lee LS, Poidinger M, Saudan P, Bachmann M, Ooi EE, Hanson BJ, Diermayr V, Matter A, Fairhurst A-M, Hibberd ML, Connolly JE. 2018. Dec 20;8(1):18007 Scientific Reports.

A flow cytometric-based assay for high-throughput detection and quantification of NETs in mixed cell populations. Zharkova O, Tay SH, Lee HY, Tripathi S, Ong W-Y, MacAry PA, Lim LHK, Lateef A, Connolly JE, Fairhurst A-M, Cytometry A, 2018. Dec 14. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.23672. [Epub ahead of print] Selected for highlights in Cytometry A.

TLR9 deficiency breaks tolerance to RNA-associated antigens and upregulates TLR7 protein in Sle1 mice. Celhar T, Thornhill S, Yasuga H, Lee HY, Zharkova O, Tripathi S, Kim HL, Bijin A, Lim LHK, Thamboo TP, Akira S, Wakeland EK, Connolly JE, Fairhurst A-M

2018, Arthritis and Rheumatology.  2018 Apr 24. doi: 10.1002/art.40535. IF:7.9

Selected for A&R Clinical Highlights: 2018; Selected for A*STAR RESEARCH Highlights: (https://research.a-star.edu.sg/author/preview/8010/861e7a1b45b6d0db42f8678526760077)

Jan 2019. Selected for highlights in “The Rheumatologist” January 2019

Annexin-A1 enhances breast cancer growth and migration by promoting alternative macrophage polarization in the tumour microenvironment. Moraes LA, Kar S, Lin FS, Gu T,  Toh YQ,  Ampomah PB, Sachaphibulkij K, Yap G, Zharkova O, Lukman HK, Fairhurst A-M,  Kumar AP, Lim LHK. Sci Rep.; 2017; Dec 20;7(1):17925. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17622-5.

Decreased expression of CD244 (SLAMF4) on monocytes and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Mak A, Thornhill SI, Lee HY, Lee B, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Fairhurst AM. Clin Rheum. 2017 Jun 8. doi: 10.1007/s10067-017-3698-2

Monocyte Siglec5/14 expression is upregulated in patients with SLE and correlates with disease severity. Thornhill SI, Mak A,, Lee B, Lee HL, Poidinger M,  Connolly JE, Fairhurst A-M.  

Rheumatology; 2017 Jan 29. pii: kew498. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kew498 IF.5.2

Highlighted in: A*STAR RESEARCH: Nov 2017;

Pathways leading to an Immunological Disease: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cravens P, Zharkova O, Celhar T, Satterthwaite A, Fairhurst A-M*, Davis L*. Rheumatology; Apr 1;56 (suppl_1):i55-i66.  IF.5.2

Editorial Forward by the Commissioning Editor; "The 2016 Rheumatology SLE review series; working for a better standard of care: A timely review series on SLE. Rheumatology. A-M Fairhurst  2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i1-i2. IF.5.2

Modelling clinical SLE: Similarities, Differences and Success Stories. Celhar T, Fairhurst A-M. Rheumatology. Rheumatology (Oxford); December 2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i88-i99. IF.5.2

Clinical Utility of Circulating Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunits NR2A/B Antibody for the Diagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Tay SH, Fairhurst A-M, Mak A. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2017 Feb;16(2):114-122

Sim WJ, Malinarich F, Fairhurst A-M, Connolly JE. Generation of immature, mature and tolerogenic dendritic cells with differing metabolic phenotypes. JoVE. 2016 Jun 22 (112) http://www.jove.com/video/54128.


Arora S, Lim W, Lim A, Lee HY, Yan B, Fairhurst A-M, Alonso S, Lim LHK. Influenza A virus enhances its propagation through the modulation of Annexin-A1 dependent endosomal trafficking and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2016 Jul;23(7):1243-56. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2016.19

Celhar T, Pereira-Lopes S, Thornhill SI, Lee HY, Dhillon MK, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Lim LH, Biswas S, Fairhurst AM. TLR7 and TLR9 ligands regulate Antigen Presentation by Macrophages. 2015. Int. Immunol. Nov 13, 2015 doi:10.1093/intimm/dxv066

Cělhar T, Hopkins R, Magalhães R, Lee H-Y, Hwang S-H, Jones LA, Casco J, Lee B, Thamboo TP, Mac A, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK, Fairhurst A-M. RNA sensing by conventional dendritic cells is essential for the development of severe autoimmune pathology in a mouse model of SLE.   PNAS 2015 Nov 10;112 (45):E6195-204.

Highlighted in: A*STAR RESEARCH: Oct 2016

Malinarich F, Duan K, Abdull R, Bijin A, Poidinger M, Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE.  High Mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic capacity represent a metabolic phenotype of human tolerogenic dendritic cells. J. Immunol 2015 Jun 1;194(11):5174-86.

Celhar T, Fairhurst A-M Toll-like receptors in systemic lupus erythematosus: potential for personalized treatment. (Frontiers in Pharmacology 2014: Dec 8;5:265.

Chao Y, Kaliaperumal N, Lee B, Chretien A-S, Fairhurst A-M, Connolly JE. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells regulate IFN production through activation induced splicing of IL-18.  J. Leukocyte Biol 2014. Dec;96(6):1037-46

Pereira-Lopes S, Celhar T, Sans-Fons G, Serra M, Fairhurst A-M, Lloberas J, Celada A. The exonuclease Trex1 restrains the macrophage pro-inflammatory action. J. Immunol. 2013 Dec 15;191(12):6128-35

Skibinski D, Hanson B, Lin Y, von Messling V, Jegerlehner A, Sern Tee JB, Chye DH, Wong S, Ng A, Lee HY, Au B, Lee B, Poidinger M, Santoso L, Fairhurst A-M, Matter A, Bachmann M, Saudan P, Connolly JE. Enhanced neutralizing antibody titers and Th1 polarization from a novel Escherichia coli derived pandemic influenza vaccine PLOS One. Oct 18;8(10):e76571

Bist P, Shu S, Arora S, Nair S, Lim JY, Lee HY, Dayalan J, Gasser S, Biswas SK, Fairhurst AM*, Lim LHK*.  Annexin-A1 regulates TLR-mediated IFN- production through an interaction with TBK-1 J. Immunol. Oct 15;191(8):4375-82

Hwang SH, Lee HL, Jones L, Yamamoto M,  Dayalan J, Hopkins R, Zhou XJ, Yarovinsky F, Connolly JE, Lafaille M, Wakeland EK, Fairhurst AM. B cell-TLR7 expression drives anti-RNA autoantibody production and exacerbates disease in SLE-prone mice.  J. Immunol. 2012 189(12): 5786-96

Highlighted in: A*STAR RESEARCH: Oct2012-Mar2013 (21) "How one protein accelerates lupus"

Cělhar T., Magalhães R., Fairhurst A-M. TLR7 and TLR9: when sensing self goes wrong. Frontiers in Immunology  2012 Sep;53(1-3):58-77. doi: 10.1007/s12026-012-8270-1

Wang A, Guilpain P, Chong BF, Chouzenoux S, Guillevin L, Du Y, Zhou XJ, Lin F, Fairhurst AM, Boudreaux C, Roux C, Wakeland EK, Davis L, Batteux F, Mohan C. Dysregulated expression of CXCR4/CXCL12 in subsets of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 . 62(11):3436-46

Fairhurst A-M, Xie C, Fu Y, Wang A, Zhou XJ, Cibotti R, Coyle A, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK, Mohan C. Type I interferons produced by resident renal cells may promote end-organ disease in immune-mediated nephritis J. Immunol  2009: 183 (10):6831-8.

Wang A, Fairhurst AM, Tus K, Subramanian S, Liu Y, Lin F, Igarashi P, Zhou XJ, Batteux F, Wong D, Wakeland EK, Mohan C. CXCR4/CXCL12 hyperexpression plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of lupus. J. Immunol  2009 182(7):4448-58.

Timmons BC, Fairhurst A-M, Mahendroo MS. Temporal Changes in Myeloid Cells in the Cervix during Pregnancy and Parturition. J. Immunol 2009 182 (5): 2700-7.

Fairhurst A-M, Hwang S-H, Wang A, Boudreaux C, Zhou XJ, Li Q, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK

Yaa-autoimmune phenotypes are conferred by an overexpression of TLR7. E. J. Immunol  2008, 38(7):1971-8

Fairhurst A-M*, Mathian A, Connolly J E, Wang, A, Gray H, George T, Zhou J, Koutouzov S, Banchereau J, Wakeland EK Systemic IFNalpha drives kidney nephritis in B6.Sle123 mice. E. J. Immunol  2008 38(7):1948-60.

Pisetsky DS, Fairhurst AM. The origin of extracellular DNA during the clearance of dead and dying cells. Autoimmunity. 2007 281-4.

Fairhurst A-M, Wallace PK, Jawad A, Goulding NJ. Rheumatoid peripheral blood phagocytes are primed for activation but have impaired Fc mediated ROS generation. Arthritis Res Ther  2007 9(2):R29

Fairhurst A-M, Wandstrat AE, Wakeland EK. Systemic lupus erythematosus: multiple immunological phenotypes in a complex genetic disease. Adv  Immunol  2006:92 1-69

Wandstrat AE, Carr-Johnson F, Branch V, Gray H, Fairhurst A-M, Reimold A, Karp D, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ. Autoantibody profiling to identify individuals at risk for systemic lupus erythematosus. J Autoimmun. 2006 27(3):153-60.

Ettinger RE, Sims GA, Fairhurst A-M, Da Silva Y-S, Robbins R, Spolski R, Leonard WJ,

Lipsky PE. IL-21 induces differentiation of human naive and memory B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells.    J Immunol. 2005 175(12):7867-79

Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE, Hintz KA, Goulding NJ, Rassias AJ, Yeager MP, Rigby W, Flower RJ, Wallace PK. Regulation and Localization of Endogenous Human Tristeraprolin  Arthritis Res Ther  2003 (5):R214-R225

Murphy B, Nunes CN, Ronan JJ, Hanaway M, Fairhurst AM, Mellin TN. Centrally administered MTII affects feeding, drinking, temperature, and activity in the Sprague-Dawley rat. J. App. Physiol. 2000 Jul;89(1):273-82.

Murphy B, Nunes CN, Ronan JJ, Harper CM, Beall MJ, Hanaway M, Fairhurst AM, Van der Ploeg LH, MacIntyre DE, Mellin TN. Melanocortin mediated inhibition of feeding behavior in rats. Neuropeptides 1998 Dec;32(6):491-7.

 

Publications by Year
2018
Skibinski DAG, Jones LA, Zhu YO, Xue LW, Au B, Lee B, Naim ANM, Lee A, Kaliaperumal N, Low JGH, Lee LS, Poidinger M, Saudan P, Bachmann M, Ooi EE, Hanson BJ, Novotny-Diermayr V, Matter A, Fairhurst AM, Hibberd ML, Connolly JE. Induction of Human T-cell and Cytokine Responses Following Vaccination with a Novel Influenza Vaccine. 
Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 20;8(1):18007.

Zharkova O, Tay SH, Lee HY, Shubhita T, Ong WY, Lateef A, MacAry PA, Lim LHK, Connolly JE, Fairhurst AM. A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for High-Throughput Detection and Quantification of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Mixed Cell Populations. Cytometry A. 2018 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Celhar T, Yasuga H, Lee HY, Zharkova O, Tripathi S, Thornhill SI, Lu HK, Au B, Lim LHK, Thamboo TP, Akira S, Wakeland EK, Connolly JE, Fairhurst AM. TLR9 deficiency breaks tolerance to RNA-associated antigens and upregulates TLR7 protein in Sle1 mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Mak A, Thornhill SI, Lee HY, Lee B, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Fairhurst AM. Brief report: Decreased expression of CD244 (SLAMF4) on monocytes and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol2018 Mar;37(3):811-816.

2017
Moraes LA, Kar S, Foo SL, Gu T, Toh YQ, Ampomah PB, Sachaphibulkij K, Yap G, Zharkova O, Lukman HM, Fairhurst AM, Kumar AP, Lim LHK. Annexin-A1 enhances breast cancer growth and migration by promoting alternative macrophage polarization in the tumour microenvironment. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 20;7(1):17925.

Thornhill SI, Mak A, Lee B, Lee HY, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Fairhurst AM. Monocyte Siglec-14 expression is upregulated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlates with lupus disease activity. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jun 1;56(6):1025-1030.

Fairhurst AM. A timely review series on SLE. 
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i1-i2.

Zharkova O, Celhar T, Cravens PD, Satterthwaite AB, Fairhurst AM, Davis LS. Pathways leading to an immunological disease: systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i55-i66.

Celhar T, Fairhurst AM. Modelling clinical systemic lupus erythematosus: similarities, differences and success stories. 
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Apr 1;56(suppl_1):i88-i99.

Tay SH, Fairhurst AM, Mak A. Clinical Utility of Circulating Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunits NR2A/B Antibody for the Diagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Autoimmun Rev. 2017 Feb;16(2):114-122.

2016
Arora S, Lim W, Bist P, Perumalsamy R, Lukman HM, Li F, Welker LB, Yan B, Sethi G, Tambyah PA, Fairhurst AM, Alonso S, Lim LH. Influenza A virus enhances its propagation through the modulation of Annexin-A1 dependent endosomal trafficking and apoptosis. 
Cell Death Differ. 2016 Jul;23(7):1243-56.

Sim WJ, Malinarich F, Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE. Generation of Immature, Mature and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells with Differing Metabolic Phenotypes. J Vis Exp. 2016 Jun 22;(112).

Celhar T, Pereira-Lopez S, Thornhill SI, Hui Yin L, Dhillon MK, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Lim LH, Biswas SK, Fairhurst AM. TLR7 and TLR9 ligands regulate Antigen Presentation by Macrophages. Int Immunol. 2016 May;28(5):223-32.

2015
Celhar T, Hopkins R, Thornhill SI, De Magalhaes R, Hwang SH, Lee HY, Yasuga H, Jones LA, Casco J, Lee B, Thamboo TP, Zhou XJ, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK, Fairhurst AM. RNA sensing by conventional dendritic cells is central to the development of lupus nephritis. 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 10;112(45):E6195-204.

Malinarich F, Duan K, Hamid RA, Bijin A, Lin WX, Poidinger M, Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE. High Mitochondrial Respiration and Glycolytic Capacity Represent a Metabolic Phenotype of Human Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells. J Immunol. 2015 Jun 1;194(11):5174-86.

2014
Celhar T, Fairhurst AM. Toll-like receptors in systemic lupus erythematosus: potential for personalized treatment. 
Front Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 8;5:265.

Chao Y, Kaliaperumal N, Chretien AS, Tang S, Lee B, Poidinger M, Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells regulate IFN-α production through activation-induced splicing of IL-18Rα. J Leukoc Biol. 2014 Dec;96(6):1037-46.

2013
Pereira-Lopes S, Celhar T, Sans-Fons G, Serra M, Fairhurst AM, Lloberas J, Celada A. The Exonuclease Trex1 Restrains Macrophage Proinflammatory Activation. 
J Immunol. 2013 Dec 15;191(12):6128-35.

Skibinski DA, Hanson BJ, Lin Y, von Messling V, Jegerlehner A, Tee JB, Chye de H, Wong SK, Ng AA, Lee HY, Au B, Lee BT, Santoso L, Poidinger M, Fairhurst AM, Matter A, Bachmann MF, Saudan P, Connolly JE. Enhanced Neutralizing Antibody Titers and Th1 Polarization from a Novel Escherichia coli Derived Pandemic Influenza Vaccine. 
PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e76571.

Bist P, Shu S, Lee H, Arora S, Nair S, Lim JY, Dayalan J, Gasser S, Biswas SK, Fairhurst AM, Lim LH. Annexin-A1 Regulates TLR-Mediated IFN-β Production through an Interaction with TANK-Binding Kinase 1. 
J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15;191(8):4375-4382.

2012
Hwang SH, Lee H, Yamamoto M, Jones LA, Dayalan J, Hopkins R, Zhou XJ, Yarovinsky F, Connolly JE, Curotto de Lafaille MA, Wakeland EK, Fairhurst AM. B Cell TLR7 Expression Drives Anti-RNA Autoantibody Production and Exacerbates Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Prone Mice. 
J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15;189(12):5786-96.

Celhar T, Magalhães R, Fairhurst AM. TLR7 and TLR9 in SLE: when sensing self goes wrong. Immunol Res. 2012 Sep;53(1-3):58-77.

2010
Wang A, Guilpain P, Chong BF, Chouzenoux S, Guillevin L, Du Y, Zhou XJ, Lin F, Fairhurst AM, Boudreaux C, Roux C, Wakeland EK, Davis L, Batteux F, Mohan C. Dysregulated expression of CXCR4/CXCL12 in subsets of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]


2009
Fairhurst A-M, Xie C*, Fu Y, Wang A, Zhou XJ, Cibotti R, Coyle A, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK, Mohan C. Type I interferons produced by resident renal cells may promote end-organ disease in immune-mediated nephritis 
J. Immunol. 2009: 183 (10):6831-8.

Wang A, Fairhurst AM, Tus K, Subramanian S, Liu Y, Lin F, Igarashi P, Zhou XJ, Batteux F, Wong D, Wakeland EK, Mohan C. CXCR4/CXCL12 hyperexpression plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of lupus. J. Immunol. 2009 182(7):4448-58.

Timmons BC, Fairhurst A-M, Mahendroo MS. Temporal Changes in Myeloid Cells in the Cervix during Pregnancy and Parturition. J. Immunol. 2009 182 (5): 2700-7.

2008
Fairhurst A-M, Hwang S-H, Wang A, Boudreaux C, Zhou XJ, Li Q, Connolly JE, Wakeland EK. Yaa-autoimmune phenotypes are conferred by an overexpression of TLR7. E. 
J. Immunol. 2008, 38(7):1971-8

Fairhurst A-M, Mathian A, Connolly J E, Wang, A, Gray H, George T, Zhou J, Koutouzov S, Banchereau J, Wakeland EK. Systemic IFNalpha drives kidney nephritis in B6.Sle123 mice. E. 
J. Immunol. 2008 38(7):1948-60.

2007
Pisetsky DS, Fairhurst AM. The origin of extracellular DNA during the clearance of dead and dying cells. 
Autoimmunity. 2007 281-4.

Fairhurst A-M, Wallace PK, Jawad A, Goulding NJ. Rheumatoid peripheral blood phagocytes are primed for activation but have impaired Fc mediated ROS generation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007 9(2):R29

2006

Fairhurst A-M, Wandstrat AE, Wakeland EK. Systemic lupus erythematosus: multiple immunological phenotypes in a complex genetic disease. 
Adv Immunol. 2006:92 1-69

Wandstrat AE, Carr-Johnson F, Branch V, Gray H, Fairhurst A-M, Reimold A, Karp D, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ. Autoantibody profiling to identify individuals at risk for systemic lupus erythematosus. J Autoimmun. 2006 27(3):153-60.

2005 and before
Ettinger RE, Sims GA, Fairhurst A-M, Da Silva Y-S, Robbins R, Spolski R, Leonard WJ, Lipsky PE. IL-21 induces differentiation of human naive and memory B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. J Immunol. 2005 175(12):7867-79

Fairhurst AM, Connolly JE, Hintz KA, Goulding NJ, Rassias AJ, Yeager MP, Rigby W, Flower RJ, Wallace PK. Regulation and Localization of Endogenous Human Tristeraprolin. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003 5:R214-R225

Murphy B, Nunes CN, Ronan JJ, Hanaway M, Fairhurst AM, Mellin TN. Centrally administered MT II affects feeding, drinking, temperature, and activity in the sprague-dawley rat. J Appl Physiol. 2000 89: 1; 273-82

Murphy B, Nunes CN, Ronan JJ., Beall MJ, Hanaway M, Fairhurst AM, Van der Ploeg LH, MacIntyre DE, Mellin TN. Melanocortin mediated inhibition of feeding behaviour in rats. Neuropeptides. 1998 32: 6; 491-7