posted on July 07, 2017 14:28
Shawn and Yiqi have new research published. Details are shown below:
1. SGBS Cells As A Model of Human Adipocyte Browning: A Comprehensive Comparative Study with Primary Human White Subcutaneous Adipocytes
The Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocyte cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human white pre-adipocytes. A recent study suggested that SGBS adipocytes exhibit an unexpected transient brown phenotype. Here, we comprehensively examined key differences between SGBS adipocytes and primary human white subcutaneous (PHWSC) adipocytes. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and metabolic pathways were the top two KEGG pathways significantly enriched in SGBS adipocytes, which included positively enriched mitochondrial respiration and oxidation pathways. Compared to PHWSC adipocytes, SGBS adipocytes showed not only greater induction of adipogenic gene expression during differentiation but also increased levels of UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. Functionally, SGBS adipocytes displayed higher ISO-induced basal leak respiration and overall oxygen consumption rate, along with increased triglyceride accumulation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, we confirmed that SGBS adipocytes, which are considered of white adipose tissue origin can shift towards a brown/beige adipocyte phenotype. These differences indicate SGBS cells may help to identify mechanisms leading to browning, and inform our understanding for the use of SGBS vis-à-vis primary human subcutaneous adipocytes as a human white adipocyte model, guiding the selection of appropriate cell models in future metabolic research.
2. Knockdown and Replacement Therapy Mediated By Artificial Mirtrons in Spinocerellar Ataxia 7
We evaluate a knockdown-replacement strategy mediated by mirtrons as an alternative to allele-specific silencing using spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA7) as a model. Mirtrons are introns that form pre-microRNA hairpins after splicing, producing RNAi effectors not processed by Drosha. Mirtron mimics may therefore avoid saturation of the canonical processing pathway. This method combines gene silencing mediated by an artificial mirtron with delivery of a functional copy of the gene such that both elements of the therapy are always expressed concurrently, minimizing the potential for undesirable effects and preserving wild-type function. This mutation- and single nucleotide polymorphism-independent method could be crucial in dominant diseases that feature both gain- and loss-of-function pathologies or have a heterogeneous genetic background. Here we develop mirtrons against ataxin 7 with silencing efficacy comparable to shRNAs, and introduce silent mutations into an ataxin 7 transgene such that it is resistant to their effect. We successfully express the transgene and one mirtron together from a single construct. Hence, we show that this method can be used to silence the endogenous allele of ataxin 7 and replace it with an exogenous copy of the gene, highlighting the efficacy and transferability across patient genotypes of this approach.