Mass & Force


Quantity measurements are important to our daily life. Items such as food, medicine, water, oil and precious metal and others are traded in terms of "mass". Contemporary mass measurements are critically required for commerce, technology, and science. The Mass quantity is defined by "International Prototype of Kilogram (IPK)" and is disseminated to mass-related derived measurement quantity such as force, hardness and pressure etc.

NMC maintains the No:83 of copier of IPK, and is able to provide the measurement and calibration from 1mg to 50 Kg with smallest uncertainty in Singapore. This is important to the industries. For example, a very small error in quantity will lead to huge amount lost for a pharmaceutical production. Force measurements are also widely used for construction, civil engineering and transportation.

The Mass & Force Laboratory develops, maintains and disseminates the mass, force, torque, hardness and density metrology-related national standards in Singapore.

Mass Standards

NMC realises the kilogram, which is the base unit of mass, with the Singapore's Kilogram No. 83 traceable to the International Prototype Kilogram in Paris.

The value of mass is transferred to other mass standards through a series of comparisons (using mass or vacuum mass comparators), involving combination of mass standards in sub division or addition to achieve different mass values.

The standards are capable of calibrating the mass standards from 1 mg to 20 kg with expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) from 0.6 μg to 1.3 mg.



Vacuum mass comparator


Robotic mass comparator


The Singapore's prototype kilogram


Automated mass comparator

Force Standards

NMC realises the newton (N), which is the unit of Force derived from mass (kg) and gravitational acceleration (m/s2), through the use of deadweights exerting a direct force on a transfer standard (force transducer).

High capacity forces are achieved in NMC by using forces generated by deadweights amplified through a lever system.

The standard is capable of calibrating force devices from 1 mg to 20 kg with expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) from 0.6 μg to 1.3 mg.



Reference force transducer