Direct Metal Deposition (DMD): An Energy Efficient Environmentally-Friendly Technology for Improved Competitiveness and Global Manufacturing Platform

Date: 03 Mar 2004 - 03 Mar 2004

Venue: Auditorium, Tower Block, SIMTech, 71 Nanyang Drive


Quest for a material to suit service performance is almost as old as the human civilisation. An enabling technology which can build, repair or reconfigure components layer by layer or even pixel by pixel with appropriate materials to match the performance will enhance productivity and thus reduce energy consumption. With globalisation, “Economic Space” for an organisation is now spreading across the globe. Closed Loop Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) has the potential to embrace both the challenges and change manufacturing as we know it.

Rapid Fabrication of three-dimensional shapes of engineering materials such as H13 tool steel and nickel super alloys are now possible using Direct Materials Deposition (DMD) technique as well as similar techniques such as Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) or Directed Light Fabrication (DLF). DMD has closed loop capability, which enables better dimension and thermal cycle control. This enables one to deposit different materials at different pixels with a given height directly from a CAD drawing. The feedback loop also controls the thermal cycle and H13 tool steel is one of the difficult alloys for deposition due to the residual stress accumulation from martensitic transformation. However, it is the material of choice for the die and tool industry. DMD has demonstrated successful fabrication of complicated shapes and dies and tools, even with H13 alloys. This process also offers Copper chill blocks and water-cooling channels as the integral part of the tool. Flexibility of the process is enormous and essentially it is an enabling technology to materialise many a design. Recently new generations of machines launched by the POM Group in partnership with Trumpf GMBH has the capability of tele-diagnostics and with further research has the potential for remote manufacturing. Conceptually one can seat in Singapore and manufacture in Durgapore, India. Such systems will be a natural choice for a Global “Economic Space”. Using DMD in conjunction with Homogenisation Design Method and multi-material CAD, one can produce components with predetermined performance such as negative co-efficient of expansion, by synthesis of designed microstructure. This talk briefly reviews the state of the art of DMD and describes various case studies from Industry and research findings from Universities.


Jyoti Mazumder is Robert H. Lurie Professor of Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Director of the Center for Laser Aided Intelligent Manufacturing at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Dr. Mazumder received his Bachelor of Metallurgical Engineering degree from B.E. College (Calcutta University), and his D.I.C. and Ph.D. degrees from Imperial College (London University). Dr. Mazumder’s research activities include closed loop direct metal deposition (DMD), laser surface modification to study metastable alloys, laser welding, laser chemical vapor deposition, laser ablation, and mathematical modelling of directed energy beam processing. He has published more than 275 papers and edited/co-edited 9 books on this research topic. He is also taking his research to market by commercialising DMD through a start up called POM Group Inc, where he acts as CEO. Dr. Mazumder has received numerous awards and honors for his research including The University Scholar Award from the University of Illinois in 1985-86, and the Xerox Faculty Award for Research Excellence in 1987, Schawlow Award for seminal contribution to Laser application research from Laser Institute of America. In addition, he has been elected as a Fellow to the Laser Institute of America and American Society of Metals. He served as the president of the Laser Institute of America in the year 2000. He also acts as a consultant to government and industries. Dr. Mazumder is currently Editor in Chief of the Journal of Laser Applications.