Arc welding processes generally cover SMAW (shielded metal arc welding, or manual metal arc welding), GMAW (gas metal arc welding or MIG welding), FCAW (flux-cored arc welding), SAW (submerged arc welding), GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding or TIG welding), PAW (plasma arc welding) etc. Arc welding processes have been extensively applied in manufacturing and fabrication. Almost all the metals or alloys can be joined by using arc welding. Most arc welding processes can be readily mechanized, automated, or robotized, for improvement in both productivity and quality. In addition to welding, arc welding can be applied in cladding for anti-corrosion and anti-wear applications.