National Quantum Fabless Foundry (NQFF)

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The National Quantum Fabless Foundry (NQFF) is a national-level platform in Singapore to build capabilities in designing, fabricating, and characterising micro- and nano- devices that are essential for quantum technologies. This research foundry does not own and maintain a cleanroom but access the existing network of cleanrooms in Singapore while augmenting them with new and unique capabilities to develop key recipes important to quantum technologies.

It is incubated at the Institute of Material Research and Engineering (IMRE), while NQFF works closely with the Institute of Micro Electronics (IME), both being part of the A*STAR family. In IMRE, NQFF has state-of-the-art design and characterisation facilities to cater to device characterisation. The NQFF team members perform the fabrication of devices at IME as well as in other cleanrooms, such as the CA2DM and E6 at the National University of Singapore (NUS). 

At present, the mandate of the NQFF is to support the local research needs; hence, NQFF works closely with Principal Investigators from NUS and NTU. The foundry has developed fabrication processes on the following four domains of quantum technology platforms:





We also design, fabricate and characterise some of the commonly used enabling devices for material qubit platforms namely Cryogenic electronics.

Among the three pillars of quantum technologies computing, communication and sensing, the NQFF currently focuses on the first pillar.  The following gives a basic introduction to a full-stack quantum computer to understand the component requirements.

Introduction to Full-Stack Quantum Computer
Currently, there are many choices to realise a unit of quantum information called quantum bit or qubit. These platforms can be broadly classified as material-based qubits and isolated particle-based qubits. Some examples of material-based qubits are superconducting circuits, silicon-donor, quantum dots etc., all requiring sophisticated micro and nano fabrication to build the qubits. On the contrary, isolated particle-based qubits like atoms, molecules, or photons generally require a specialised ultra-high vacuum and or laser to make the qubits. 

The foundry supports both types of full-stack machines by manufacturing components that require micro/nano fabrications. In the following, we show which components we develop and where in the full stack they are used. We start with a generic full-stack block diagram:
NQFF Full Stack Quantum Computer

Superconducting Qubits

The stack of our discussion is the physics package. Based on the platform this package changes and hence we start with the superconducting qubits. A simple block diagram of the QC circuit platform is as follows.

SC circuit platform block diagram: there are 4 electrical connections
Superconducting qubit and cryogenic devices

SC Circuits
This is the quantum processor and it resides at about 10s mK temperature such that aluminium is in superconducting state. The circuits consists of a capacitor and a Josephson Junction (JJ) or also called tunneling junction.
Air Bridge
To avoid microwave losses, we have developed air-bridges that can be fabricated using fewer steps and with high reliability integrated into our SC circuits.
Travelling Wave Parametric Amplifier (TWPA)
TWPA as similar to JJs but are of lower quality and allows parameteric amplification in a series of JJs.



We have forged partnerships with the best fabrication facilities in Singapore. Currently, we are establishing the process flows for device fabrication at the Institute of Micro Electronics (IME), Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), E6 NanoFab at NUS and the Centre for Quantum Technologies (NUS and NTU). In addition, we are developing a design and characterisation facility at A*STAR's Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE). The list of industry partners is also evolving as we build our capacities.


Tektronix and NQFF has partnered to work together in the development of characterisation techniques as well as tools to evaluate and benchmark quantum devices. NQFF is evaluating the potentials and limitations of multi-channel high bandwidth scopes that Tektronix develops for characterising ion trap electrodes while Tektronix is providing solutions to integrate the scopes to other frequency domain measurements.

Upcoming Events
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Hear from A/Prof Karan Mehta on "Scalable Trapped-Ion Quantum Control in Structured Light Fields"

Date: 4 April 2023
Time: 4pm to 6pm
Venue: Fusionopolis 2, Innovis, Level 1, Multi-Purpose Hall 2 (MPH 2)

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Building Connected Quantum Eco-Systems: Singapore And Finland

Hear from experts on Singapore and Finland's shared common goals and objectives in the race to become a quantum-enabled nation. Join Dr Manas Mukherjee, Director of the National Quantum Fabless Foundry (NQFF), IMRE/A*STAR and the rest of the panellists at the panel discussion.

This event is co-organised by SGInnovate, Business Finland, IMDA, Embassy of Finland Singapore and the Centure for Quantum Technologies

Date: 3 April 2023
Time: 6pm to 9pm
Venue: 32 Carpenter Street, Singapore 059911

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