RF & Microwave




Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field in the frequency range from around 20 kHz to around 300 GHz. This is roughly between the upper limit of audio frequencies and the lower limit of infrared frequencies. These are the frequencies at which energy from an oscillating current can radiate off a conductor into space as radio waves.

RF and microwave measurement is critical in many industry sectors such as aerospace, automobile, electronics, manufacturing and healthcare, as it has great impact on quality of products and services; performance and reliability of equipment; health and safety of the people.


The RF and Microwave Laboratory has upgraded their primary power measurement system (i.e., microcalorimeter) with Type-N connection. Through this development, new capability for directly calibrating commercial reference standards (e.g., thermistor mounts) has been established. A trilateral comparison covering the operating frequency from 10 MHz to 18 GHz has been organized with other NMIs. This trilateral comparison was successfully completed in 2019 and validated the equivalence with excellent agreements of newly established Type-N microcalorimeter with other NMIs. The laboratory is also working on the development of high-frequency material measurement system for dielectric properties at metrology level.


The RF and Microwave Laboratory develops, maintains and disseminates the RF, microwave and millimeter-wave related national measurement standards in Singapore. NMC has set up and is continuing to improve national standards through R&D activities in this area to better meet the needs of the industry. Scope of Works: reference standards, measurement technologies, calibration services and collaboration projects in RF and microwave area.

RF Voltage

NMC has developed a measurement system for RF-DC voltage difference calibration. The system transfers the parameter to cover the voltage range from 0.5 V to 10 V and frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The uncertainties are less than 0.3%.

RF and Microwave Power

NMC has developed a series of power sensor calibration systems to provide the traceable calibration services with small measurement uncertainties.

Services provided:

  • For coaxial connections, frequency ranges from 100 kHz to 50 GHz
  • For waveguide connections, frequency ranges from 50 GHz to 110 GHz

RF and Microwave Scattering Parameter

Traceable scattering parameter measurements and calibration services are provided at NMC, and internationally recognized certificates are issued.

Services provided:

  • For coaxial connections, frequency ranges from 5 Hz to 110 GHz
  • For waveguide connections, frequency ranges from 50 GHz to 110 GHz

RF and Microwave Attenuation

NMC has developed attenuation measurement standards using the audio frequency substitution method, and services are available for various frequencies up to 40 GHz.

Signal and Pulse, and Others

NMC provides various traceable calibration and measurement services for electronics systems and instrument, such as oscilloscopes, distortion analysers, spectrum analysers, signal generators, and measuring receivers.

Services provided:

  • In time domain, nanosecond to picosecond services are available for pulse rise time/fall time calibration
  • In frequency domain, well developed services such as amplitude accuracy, bandwidth, harmonics, distortion and spurious level are from 100 kHz to 50 GHz



The RF and Microwave Laboratory also provides trainings for technical professionals and managers on current and emerging technologies for RF and microwave measurements and characterizations. These trainings also act as a platform to educate scientists and engineers working in the field on the fundamentals of RF and microwave metrology, and the importance of measurement comparability and traceability for international recognition of measurement and test results.

Trainings conducted in the past:

  • Basic RF Metrology: Fundamentals and Uncertainty (2016)
  • RF Primary Metrology: Measurements and Uncertainty Evaluation (2017)
  • RF Measurement and Calibration: General Concept and Practice (2019)
  • Advance in Oscilloscope (2019)
  • Fundamental in Signal Generator and Spectrum Analyser (2020, upcoming)
  • Power Sensor Calibration with Uncertainty: From Fundamental to Advanced (2020, upcoming)

International Comparisons

To ensure the unbroken metrological traceability chain, the RF and Microwave Laboratory participated in many international comparisons. NMC is currently the active member in the Consultative Committee for Electricity and Magnetism (CCEM), the active member in CCEM Working Group on Radiofrequency Quantities (CCEM GT-RF), and the active member in the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) Technical Committee on Electricity and Magnetism (TCEM).

International Comparisons:

  • CCEM.RF-K8.CL (GT-RF/98-1), up to 18 GHz, with Type N Connector
  • CCEM.RF-K10.CL (GT-RF/99-2), 50 MHz to 26 GHz, with 3.5 mm Connector
  • APMP.EM.RF-K8.CL, up to 18 GHz, with Type N Connector
  • CCEM-RF-K19.CL (GT-RF/00-2), at 60 MHz and 5 GHz, with Type N Connector
  • APMP.EM.RF-K19.CL, at 60 MHz and 5 GHz, with Type N Connector
  • CCEM.RF-K26, 18 GHz, 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz, with 2.4 mm Connector
  • P1-APMP.EM.RF-S3, 50 MHz, 2 GHz, 10 GHz and 18 GHz, with 7 mm Connector
  • CCEM.RF-K5b.CL (GT-RF/92-3), 2 – 18 GHz, with Type N Connector
  • ANAMET 101, up to 33 GHz, with 3.5 mm Connector
  • CCEM.RF-K5c.CL, 0.1- 33 GHz, with 3.5 mm Connector
  • CCEM.RF-K4.CL (GT-RF/92-6); up to 1 GHz
  • CCEM.K6c, 1 MHz and 100 MHz (2020, upcoming)



The RF and Microwave Laboratory also carries out R&D and consultancy for various industry and other stakeholders to develop and apply RF and microwave measurement techniques for various applications and offers them reliable solutions.

Some of the projects in the RF and Microwave Laboratory:

  • Development of a Microwave Assisted Media Dosage Unit for Shot Peening (Patent Filed: WO2019168472A1)
  • Development of Radome Transmissivity Testing System for Aviation MRO Operation
  • Study of the Electromagnetic (EM) Boundary for Advanced Millimeter-wave Connectivity
  • Metrological Evaluation of AEM Cable Certifier for Automotive Cable Industry



What is the ambient level of radiofrequency radiation in Singapore?

The IMDA said the ambient level of radiofrequency radiation in Singapore is “very low”.
It is “typically below 0.7 percent of … International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines”. Click here for more information.