Transport & Connectivity

Metro Metrics

As metro or rapid transit systems continue to grow in ridership, network expansion is necessary to ensure that transport quality can be maintained or further improved. The addition of multiple intersecting rail lines could allow the system to reinforce itself so as to provide viable alternative routes for commuters, particularly during unplanned disruptions. However, there are currently no global standards or frameworks to holistically quantify metro network resilience to allow planners to effectively assess the impact of these rail expansions on commuter alternative route choice and quality. 

IHPC, in collaboration with the local transport planners, has developed a resilience analysis framework that models the rapid transit system as a weighted complex network. It uses a variety of inputs, including: 

  1. Commuters' demand and flow distribution
  2. Network topology in terms of station and interchange locations and the rail line connectivity between the stations
  3. Flow capacity of transit services 

The framework uses these inputs to compute five novel indicators representing the resilience measure over different segments of the metro network. The indicators are subsequently combined into a single composite index to provide a holistic resilience score for each scenario.  

The computational algorithms have been integrated into a software tool with a graphical user interface (GUI)  that ensures that the resilience analysis can be easily used by transport planners and other non-technical users.  


  • Specify, visualise and modify model inputs for a metro/rapid transit system
  • Run a resilience analysis model scenario of rapid transit system
  • Visualise and compare flow distribution and resilience indicator scores for different scenario runs

The Science Behind

Our resilience framework uses two major concepts. The first concept involves large-scale data analytics involving the use of fine-grained commuter mobility traces using farecard data obtained from the entire islandwide Singapore rapid transit system.  The processing of this dataset will result in the predicted demand utilising the system. The second concept uses weighted complex network analysis that involves modelling the system as a mathematical construct and computing various network metrics that are relevant to the resilience requirements of the transport planners.

Industry Application

The resilience framework proposed is generalizable and most of the data requirements are also typically available to transport operators and planners in other cities around the world, i.e., to add a new dimension to the process of future planning of rail networks.


For more info or collaboration opportunities, please write to